Tourette´s Syndrome is a neurological disorder that is characterized by sudden, repetitive, involuntary movements (called motor tics) and noises or words (called vocal tics).
In most cases, Tourette´s syndrome runs in families and genetic factors may be involved, although the relevant genes and the mode of inheritance have not been identified. In some cases, known as sporadic Tourette´s Syndrome, there is no apparent inherited link. Various brain abnormalies have been implicated, including malfunctioning of the basal ganglia, thalamus, and frontal cortex, and abnormalities in the neurotransmitters serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, although their causative relationship to Tourette´s has not been established. Environmental factors may also play a role in the development of Tourette´s syndrome.
Symptoms and effects
The characteristic symptom of Tourette´s are motor tics, such as blinking, facial twitches, shoulder shrugging, and head jerking, and vocal tics, such as grunting or repeating words. The involuntary utterances of swear words (coprolalia) is a well-known feature, but is comparatively rare. Other mental health problems, such as depression or anxiety disorders, may also develop. Typically, the symptoms first appear during childhood and get worse during the teenage years but then improve. However, in some cases the condition gets progressively worse and lasts throughout adulthood.
(texto do livro: The Human Brain Book, Rita Carter)
Os tiques variam de abalos simples, breves e intermitentes a um padrão complexo de movimentos involuntários rápidos e coordenados, precedidos frequentemente por uma sensação desagradável que é aliviada pelo movimento.
-Coprolalia (expressões obscenas)
-Ecolalia (repetição de sons)
-Ecopraxia (repetição de movimentos)
Tiques clônicos (muito rápidos)
Tiques distônicos (contrações prolongadas)
Sensações premonitórias, intermitência e supressibilidade ajudam a distinguir os tiques da maioria dos outros transtornos dos movimentos.
(texto do livro: Tratado de Neurologia, Merrit)