Paralisia Cerebral

Anormalidades de movimentos e postura são causadas por lesão do encéfalo imaturo.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a general term for a group of permanent, non-progressive movement disorders that cause physical disability in development,mainly in the areas of body movement. It is a central motor dysfunction affecting muscle tone, posture and movement resulting from a permanent, non-progressive defect or lesion of the immature brain. CP is neither genetic nor an infectious disease, and thus it is not contagious. Most cases are congenital, arising at or about the time of birth, and are diagnosed at a young age rather than during adolescence or adulthood.
Cerebral refers to the cerebrum, which is the affected area of the brain. The disorder may often involve connections between the cortex and other parts of the brain such as the cerebellum. The term palsy in modern language refers to disorder of movement, but the word root “palsy” technically means “paralysis”, even though it is not used as such within the meaning of cerebral palsy.
Cerebral palsy is caused by damage to the motor control centers of the developing brain and can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth, or after birth up to about age three. Resulting limits in movement and posture cause activity limitation and are often accompanied by disturbances of sensation, depth perception, and other sight-based perceptual problems and communication ability; impairments can also be found in cognition, and epilepsy is found in about one-third of cases. CP often results in musculoskeletal problems. Cerebral palsy’s nature as a broad category means it is defined mostly via several different subtypes, especially the type featuring spasticity, and also mixtures of those subtypes.

Improvements in the care of newborns has helped reduce the number of babies who develop cerebral palsy and increased the survival of those with very low birth weights. There is no known cure, with efforts attempting to treat and prevent complications. It occurs in about 2.1 per 1,000 live births
(texto de: Wikipédia)

A paralisia cerebral não é uma doença específica, mas um grupo de distúrbios resultantes de lesão do encéfalo em desenvolvimento, antes ou durante o nascimento, ou durante a primeira infância. Crianças com paralisia cerebralnão tem controle normal dos membros e da postura, podendo ter também dificuldade de deglutição, problemas de fala e constipação crônica; e contudo, freqüentemente o telecto não é afetado.
A lesão encefálica não evolui, mas as incapacitações causadas por ela mudam com o crescimento da criança. Crianças com incapacitações físicas brandas geralmente têm vida ativa, total e longa, e freqüentemente vivem independentemente, quando adultas. Crianças gravemente incapacitadas exigem apoio de longa duração com especialistas. Algumas, especialmente aquelas com dificuldades de deglutição, que são mais suscetíveis a infecções torácicas graves, têm menor expectativa de vida. (texto de: O Livro do Corpo Humano)

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